Dentures are removable replacements (prosthesis) for some or all of the teeth from a jaw. By removable it is understood that the prosthesis is to be removed daily for cleaning and disinfection.
A complete denture replaces all the teeth in a jaw. A removable partial denture replaces one or several teeth in a jaw.
Common synonyms for a complete denture I have heard from patients are “my plate” or “my bridge. Common synonyms for a removable partial denture I have heard from patients are “my plate” or “my bridge” or “my partial”.